# Power and Energy

PowerGenerationofWT

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The uploaded data file is a part of data used or generated by a real time security system for frequency control in electrical grids with variable renewable generation proposed in a paper entitled: “Dynamic regulation in electrical networks with non-controlled sources”. The proposed security system analyzes the electrical network in both steady-state and dynamic state. The test systems IEEE 39-bus were used adding wind generation models to evaluate the proposed security system.

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The solenoid coil is designed to provide an inductance range of 200 to 300 microns to adjust the impedance. To simulate and calculate the inductance of the coil, two analytical methods and the finite element method have been used, which are the most common methods for calculating the inductance.

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The aim of this paper is to implement a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O), in order to solve the oscillations problem of photovoltaic (PV) power output generated by the conventional P&O algorithm. A comparison between the novel and the basic P&O algorithms is made. The first is implemented using embedded C language; the second is implemented using analog blocks. Next, the simulation study is made to present the response of the modified method to rapid temperature, solar irradiance and load change.

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The integrated power grid in USA is the largest in the world with the highest hourly power demand. In 2019, the highest hourly demand was more than 704 GW and the lowest hourly demand was less than 340 GW. The average daily variation in hourly demand is about 40% with respect to the highest hourly demand. A mathematical model is used to reduce the differential between peak and off-peak electrical power demand in this territory. The reduction is achieved with 5 time zones set up across US 48 states such that time difference between Far East and Far west is 4 hours.

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This data contains a three-phase time-series load flow for 100 days with a 10-min interval. The distribution is located in the U.K.

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The standard for measurement of solar irradiance utilizes the units of watts per meter squared (W/m2). Irradiance meters are both costly and limited in the ability to measure low irradiance values. With a lower cost and higher sensitivity in low light conditions, light meters measure luminous flux per unit area (illuminance) utilizing the units of lumens per meter squared or lux (lx).

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Power transmission system losses can typically represent from five to ten percent of the total generation, a quantity worth millions of dollars per year. The purpose of loss allocation in the context of pool dispatch is to assign to each individual generation and load the responsibility of paying for part of the system transmission losses. Since the system losses are non-separable, non-linear functions of the real power generation and loads, the allocation of transmission loss is a challenging and contentious issue in a fully deregulated system.

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An emission rate-based carbon tax is applied to fossil-fueled generators along with a Smart Grid resource allocation (SGRA) approach. The former reduces the capacity factors (CFs) of base load serving fossil-fueled units, while the latter reduces the CFs of peak load serving units. The objective is to quantify the integration of the carbon tax and the SGRA approach on CO2 emissions and electricity prices in a multi-area power grid.

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