retinal fundus images; rare pathology detection; ocular disease; classification; multi-label classification

Early detection of retinal diseases is one of the most important means of preventing partial or permanent blindness in patients. One of the major stumbling blocks for manual retinal examination is the lack of a sufficient number of qualified medical personnel per capita to diagnose diseases.


The world faces difficulties in terms of eye care, including treatment, quality of prevention, vision rehabilitation services, and scarcity of trained eye care experts. Early detection and diagnosis of ocular pathologies would enable forestall of visual impairment. One challenge that limits the adoption of computer-aided diagnosis tool by ophthalmologists is the number of sight-threatening rare pathologies, such as central retinal artery occlusion or anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and others are usually ignored.