Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks first appeared in the mid-1990s, as attacks stopping legitimate users from accessing specific services available on the Internet. A DDoS attack attempts to exhaust the resources of the victim to crash or suspend its services. Time series modeling will help system administrators for better planning of resource allocation to defend against DDoS attacks. Different Time Series analysis techniques are applied to detect the DDoS attacks.


Penetration testing plays an important role in securing websites. However, you need the right tools to run efficient tests. Penetration testing tools have different functions, pentest methodologies, features, and price ranges. It might be difficult to choose the ones most suitable for your organization. This post will briefly describe some of the finest penetration testing tools.






The network attacks are increasing both in frequency and intensity with the rapid growth of internet of things (IoT) devices. Recently, denial of service (DoS) and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are reported as the most frequent attacks in IoT networks. The traditional security solutions like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, etc., are unable to detect the complex DoS and DDoS attacks since most of them filter the normal and attack traffic based upon the static predefined rules.


Industrial Internet of Things (IIoTs) are high-value cyber targets due to the nature of the devices and connectivity protocols they deploy. They are easy to compromise and, as they are connected on a large scale with high-value data content, the compromise of any single device can extend to the whole system and disrupt critical functions. There are various security solutions that detect and mitigate intrusions.


The OFMC back-end in AVISPA is used to carry out security verification experiments in our scheme for the login and authentication phase,  Case1 in the password and biometric renewal phase, and Case2 in the password and biometric renewal phase, respectively.

Here's the experimental result for the login and authentication phase as a show.


This is a dataset is an example of a distribution of 20 correlated Bernoulli random variables.


Q_joint ... is 5 cells each consists of the joint distributions of 4,8,12,16,20 bits, respectively. The dimension of each cell is 2^n X 1, .e., a vertical column and n=4,8,12,16,20.

Q_conditional... is 5 cells each consists of the conditional distributions of 4 bits given 0, 4, 8,12,16 bits, respectively. In other words, 1:4 bits, 5:8 bits given 1:4 bits, 9:12 bits given 1:8 bits, 13:16 bits given 1:12 bits, 17:20 given 1:16 bits. The dimension of each cell is 2^4=16 X 2^n, i.e., a vertical column and n=4,8,12,16.

Q_ marginal... is 5 cells each consists of the marginal distributions of each 4 consecutive bits, i.e., 1:4 - 5:8 - 9:12 - 13:16 - 17:20, respectively.  The dimension of each cell is 16 X 1, i.e., q vertical column.

Also, a MATLAB code is uploaded to extract conditional and marginal distributions from any given discrete distribution.


This dataset is a hand noted dataset that consists of two categories, evasion and normal methods. By evasion methods we mean the methods that are used by Android malware to hide their malicious payload, and hinder the dynamic analysis. Normal methods are any other methods that cannot be used as evasion techniques. Also, the evasion methods are categorized into six categories: File access, Integrity check, Location, SMS, Time, Anti-emulation. This dataset can be used by any ML or DL approaches to predict new evasion techniques that can be used by malware to hinder the dynamic analysis.


Cyber-physical systems (CPS) have been increasingly attacked by hackers. Recent studies have shown that CPS are especially vulnerable to insider attacks, in which case the attacker has full knowledge of the systems configuration. To better prevent such types of attacks, we need to understand how insider attacks are generated. Typically, there are three critical aspects for a successful insider attack: (i) Maximize damage, (ii) Avoid detection and (iii) Minimize the attack cost.