Affective Computing; Crowd Computing; Emotion Recognition; Deep Learning; Emotional Sound

Crowds express emotions as a collective individual, which is evident from the sounds that a crowd produces in particular events, e.g., collective booing, laughing or cheering in sports matches, movies, theaters, concerts, political demonstrations, and riots. Crowd sounds can be characterized by frequency-amplitude features, using analysis techniques similar to those applied on individual voices, where deep learning classification is applied to spectrogram images derived by sound transformations.