Acoustic waves

Ultrasonic flowmeters that use transit-time ultrasonic transducers face measurement errors due to ``crosstalk,'' whereby the working signal travels through the pipe wall and couplings, interfering with the signal from the fluid.  Although various procedures have been proposed to solve the issue of crosstalk, they're limited to low-frequency ranges, or they are not effective in high-pressure environments.

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Using acoustic waves to estimate fluid concentration is a promising technology due to its practicality and non-intrusive aspect, especially for medical applications. The existing approaches are exclusively based on the correlation between the reflection coefficient and the concentration. However, these techniques are limited by the high sensitivity of the reflection coefficient to environmental conditions changes, even slight ones. This introduces inaccuracies that cannot be tolerated in medical applications.

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