People turn to search engines and social media to seek information duringpopulation-level events, such as during civil unrest, disease outbreaks, fires, or flood.They also tend to participate in discussions and disseminate information and opinionsvia social media forums, and smartphone messaging applications. COVID-19 pandemicwas not any different. However, the proper medical awareness and correct informationdissemination is critical during a pandemic.


The CoVID19-FNIR dataset contains news stories related to CoVID-19 pandemic fact-checked by expert fact-checkers. CoVID19-FNIR is a CoVID-19-specific dataset consisting of fact-checked fake news scraped from Poynter and true news from the verified Twitter handles of news publishers. The data samples were collected from India, The United States of America, and European regions and consist of online posts from social media platforms between February 2020 to June 2020. The dataset went through prepossessing steps that include removing special characters and non-vital information.


The folder contains the whole dataset. The folder has two files; (1) fakeNews.csv, and (2) trueNews.csv. The data in .csv files contain the news article and the corresponding fake rating collected from the USA, India, and Europe regions. A more detailed description of the data is given in the CoVID19-FNIR_Documentation.pdf file.

Acknowledgment: This data collection and documentation was supported in part by the NSF: CO-WY AMP program, the Social Justice Research Center, and McNair Scholars Program, University of Wyoming, USA.

Please cite: Julio A. Saenz, Sindhu Reddy Kalathur Gopal, Diksha Shukla, June 12, 2021, "Covid-19 Fake News Infodemic Research Dataset (CoVID19-FNIR Dataset)", IEEE Dataport, doi:


The dataset includes a collection of news concerning one of the most divisive public debates supported on Italian media: the constitutional referendum (held on December 4th, 2016) . The data cover a total of four months and a half, from July 31st, 2016 to December 12th, 2016, a week after the date of the referendum, and come from either Facebook. We identify pubblic Twitter acounts of Italian official newspapers, following the exhaustive list provided by ADS, that is an association for the verification of newspaper circulation in Italy.