Driving cycle

High-voltage batteries in battery electric vehicles face significant load fluctuations due to driving behavior. This dynamic performance of the powertrain is contrasted by the almost constant load of the auxiliary consumers. The highest auxiliary consumption is generated by the heating and air conditioning system, which decreases the vehicles range significantly. 72 real driving trips with a BMW i3 (60 Ah) were recorded, serving for model validation of a full vehicle model consisting of the powertrain and the heating circuit.