Earth Surface Temperature

Earth Surface Temperature

Citation Author(s):
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Submitted by:
Alex Outman
Last updated:
Thu, 11/08/2018 - 10:34
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Early data was collected by technicians using mercury thermometers, where any variation in the visit time impacted measurements. In the 1940s, the construction of airports caused many weather stations to be moved. In the 1980s, there was a move to electronic thermometers that are said to have a cooling bias.

Given this complexity, there are a range of organizations that collate climate trends data. The three most cited land and ocean temperature data sets are NOAA’s MLOST, NASA’s GISTEMP and the UK’s HadCrut.

The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Study combines 1.6 billion temperature reports from 16 pre-existing archives. It is nicely packaged and allows for slicing into interesting subsets (for example by country). They publish the source data and the code for the transformations they applied. They also use methods that allow weather observations from shorter time series to be included, meaning fewer observations need to be thrown away.



In this dataset, we have include several files: Global Land and Ocean-and-Land Temperatures (GlobalTemperatures.csv): 

  • Date: starts in 1750 for average land temperature and 1850 for max and min land temperatures and global ocean and land temperatures
  • LandAverageTemperature: global average land temperature in celsius
  • LandAverageTemperatureUncertainty: the 95% confidence interval around the average
  • LandMaxTemperature: global average maximum land temperature in celsius
  • LandMaxTemperatureUncertainty: the 95% confidence interval around the maximum land temperature
  • LandMinTemperature: global average minimum land temperature in celsius
  • LandMinTemperatureUncertainty: the 95% confidence interval around the minimum land temperature
  • LandAndOceanAverageTemperature: global average land and ocean temperature in celsius
  • LandAndOceanAverageTemperatureUncertainty: the 95% confidence interval around the global average land and ocean temperature

 Other files include: 

  • Global Average Land Temperature by Country (GlobalLandTemperaturesByCountry.csv)
  • Global Average Land Temperature by State (GlobalLandTemperaturesByState.csv)
  • Global Land Temperatures By Major City (GlobalLandTemperaturesByMajorCity.csv)
  • Global Land Temperatures By City (GlobalLandTemperaturesByCity.csv)



Submitted by amman killi on Mon, 11/04/2019 - 11:21

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[1] Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, "Earth Surface Temperature", IEEE Dataport, 2016. [Online]. Available: Accessed: Feb. 27, 2020.
doi = {10.5072/FK2RB71W9C},
url = {},
author = {Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory },
publisher = {IEEE Dataport},
title = {Earth Surface Temperature},
year = {2016} }
T1 - Earth Surface Temperature
AU - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
PY - 2016
PB - IEEE Dataport
UR - 10.5072/FK2RB71W9C
ER -
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (2016). Earth Surface Temperature. IEEE Dataport.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2016. Earth Surface Temperature. Available at:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (2016). "Earth Surface Temperature." Web.
1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Earth Surface Temperature [Internet]. IEEE Dataport; 2016. Available from :
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. "Earth Surface Temperature." doi: 10.5072/FK2RB71W9C