Blockchain in Education: Systematic Review and Practical Case Studies
The primary article search was carried out by using selected keywords. These keywords were jointly selected by the authors, with criteria that were based on the frequently used authors' keywords found in most of the related articles. For example, the list of keywords such as “blockchain” combined with “education”, or “lifelong learning” or “life-long learning” or “digital certificate” or “academic record” or “e-learning” was used to conduct the search.
The search was conducted in early June 2021. After collecting the data from these two databases, the authors used two main software RStudio and Biblioshiny developed by Aria and Cuccurullo. The RStudio software is open source solution for data science analysis and can be downloaded free from their official website, while Biblioshiny is a web tool that can be launched from the RStudio to provide a web interface for data visualization. The outcome of merging the data caused 37 duplicates found in the two data sources to be removed. Therefore, the total number of data utilized in this study, which emanated from the two data sources became 468. While this number of data may seems to be moderately low, it depicts the nature of the field, which is still emerging. However, the data is sufficient to provide insights into how blockchain in education has progressed and where it is heading in terms of adoption and technology deployment within the field.