Dataset for A Systematic Methodology to Compute the Quantum Vulnerability Factors for Quantum Circuits

Citation Author(s):
Daniel
Oliveira
Universidade Federal do Paraná
Edoardo
Giusto
Politecnico di Torino
Betis
Baheri
Kent State University
Qiang
Guan
Kent State University
Bartolomeo
Montrucchio
Politecnico di Torino
Paolo
Rech
University of Trento
Submitted by:
Edoardo Giusto
Last updated:
Mon, 05/22/2023 - 12:52
DOI:
10.21227/rnvb-6f83
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Abstract 

Quantum computing is one of the most promising technology advances of the latest years. Once only a conceptual idea to solve physics simulations, quantum computation is today a reality, with numerous machines able to execute quantum algorithms. One of the hardest challenges in quantum computing is reliability. Qubits are highly sensitive to noise, which can make the output useless. Moreover, lately it has been shown that superconducting qubits are extremely susceptible to external sources of faults, such as ionizing radiation. When adopted in large scale, radiation-induced errors are expected to become a serious challenge for qubits reliability. In this paper, we propose an evaluation of the impact of transient faults in the execution of quantum circuits. Inspired by the Architectural and Program Vulnerability Factors, widely adopted to characterize the reliability of classical computing architectures and algorithms, we propose the Quantum Vulnerability Factor (QVF) as a metric to measure the impact that the corruption of a qubit has on the circuit output probability distribution. First, we model faults based on the latest studies on real machines and recently performed radiation experiments. Then, we design a quantum fault injector, built over Qiskit, and characterize the propagation of faults in quantum circuits. We report the finding of more than 15,000,000 fault injections, evaluating the reliability of three quantum circuits and identifying the faults and qubits that are more likely than others to impact the output. With our results, we give guidelines on how to map the qubits in the real quantum computer to reduce the output error and to reduce the probability of having a radiation-induced corruption to modify the output. Finally, we compare the simulation results with experiments on physical quantum computers.

Instructions: 

The Results directory contains the data used for the paper: "A Systematic Methodology to Compute the Quantum Vulnerability Factors for Quantum Circuits".
These files are in pickle format. It is sufficient to load them as a Pandas DataFrame in a python environment.