CRAWDAD isti/rural

Citation Author(s):
Paolo
Barsocchi
ISTI - Institute of Science and Information Technologies
Gabriele
Oligeri
ISTI - Institute of Science and Information Technologies
Francesco
Potortì
ISTI - Institute of Science and Information Technologies
Submitted by:
CRAWDAD Team
Last updated:
Thu, 05/15/2008 - 08:00
DOI:
10.15783/C7G01C
License:
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Abstract 

Dataset of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement on a Wi-Fi network in rural areas.

We conducted a series of measurements for relating transmission distance and packet loss on a Wi-Fi network in rural areas to propose a model that relates distance with packet loss probability.

last modified :

2008-05-15

release date :

2007-12-19

date/time of measurement start :

2005-03-25

date/time of measurement end :

2006-04-23

collection environment :

Commonly used frame loss models for simulations over Wi-Fi channels 
assume a simple double regression model with threshold. This model 
is widely accepted, but few measurements are available in the literature 
that try to validate it. As far as we know, none of them is based 
on field trials at the frame level. We conducted a series of 
measurements for relating transmission distance and packet loss 
on a Wi-Fi network in rural areas to propose a model that relates 
distance with packet loss probability.

network configuration :

We performed our outdoor rural measurement campaign using two IBM 
Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian 
Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 IEEE 802.11b 
PCMCIA wireless cards and standard drivers. The cards were put in ad
hoc mode, so that it was not necessary to depend on an access point, 
and no management overhead was present except for the periodic beacon.

data collection methodology :

The rural environment was a wide uncultivated field with an unobstructed 
line of sight, far from buildings, cell phone antennas and power lines.

We wrote Vbrsr, a pair of programs for sending and receiving frames 
with the aim of collecting statistics about frame errors and power levels, 
which is released with a free software copyright license and is available 
for download at http://wnlab.isti.cnr.it/paolo/measurements/Software.html.

Traceset

isti/rural/packet_loss

Traceset of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement on a Wi-Fi network in rural areas.

  • files: navacchio, aggregated, 1-marine, 2-marine, 3-navpol, 4-navzin, 5-navpol
  • description: We conducted a series of measurements for relating transmission distance and packet loss on a Wi-Fi network in rural areas.
  • measurement purpose: Network Performance Analysis
  • methodology: We disabled fragmentation, RTS/CTS, retransmissions (ARQ) and dynamic rate switching. We used different fixed speeds of 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mb/s, with three fixed frame lengths (500, 1000, 1500 bytes), for different transmitter-receiver distances. By disabling ARQ, the MAC layer transmits each packet only once, rather than trying to retransmit a frame up to 8 times after a loss. This means that we sampled the channel at a constant rate of 200 frames per second, thus accurately measuring the frame error process in the time domain, using 200,000 frames for each measure. Notice that the procedure described makes the measurement process independent of the MAC protocol, and dependent only on the channel and the used hardware. The rural environment was a wide uncultivated field with an unobstructed line of sight, far from buildings, cell phone antennas and power lines. We wrote Vbrsr, a pair of programs for sending and receiving frames with the aim of collecting statistics about frame errors and power levels, which is released with a free software copyright license and is available for download at http://wnlab.isti.cnr.it/paolo/measurements/Software.html.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss
  • version: 20080506
  • change: Five traces (1-marine, 2-marine, 3-navpol, 4-navzin, and 5-navpol) have been added to the traceset isti/rural/navacchio.
  • release date: 2007-12-19
  • date/time of measurement start: 2005-03-25
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-23

isti/rural/packet_loss Traces

    • navacchio: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a 5ms intertransmission time for 11, 5.5 and 2Mb/s speeds, 10ms for the 1Mb/s speed. Notice that frames with data length 1500B are longer than 5ms at 2Mb/s and longer than 10ms at 1MB/s: in these cases the network card transmits the packets back-to-back.
  • format: Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics. Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-01-03
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/navacchio
  • version: 20071219
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2007-12-19
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-12
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-23
  • url: /download/isti/rural/navacchio
    • aggregated: Aggregated statistics of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurements in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These data are aggregated statistics on data measured in Navacchio at the beginning of 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distances on a wide uncultivated field. Each file contains data relative to a single transmission speed: 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used.
  • format: A line in a file is relative to 1000 consecutive frames sent with a 5ms intertransmission time for the three top speeds, 10ms for the lowest, so each line is relative to a 5s or 10s measurement, depending on speed. Each line contains these fields: - sequence number starting from 0 relative to a ~15min measurement - lenght of the frame in bytes: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The frame lengths in ms are: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ notice that the cases of lenght 1500 B exceed 5ms at 2Mb/s and exceed 10ms at 1MB/s: in these two cases the packets have been sent with the smallest possible intertranmission interval. - signal level presented by the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB - frame error rate
  • description: These traces are aggregated statistics on data measured in Navacchio at the beginning of 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distances on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-01-03
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/aggregated
  • version: 20071219
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2007-12-19
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-12
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-23
  • url: /download/isti/rural/aggregated
    • 1-marine: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in Marinella, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a intertransmission time varying from 5 to 20 ms for 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mb/s speeds (be sure to check the transmission times). The beacon is sent every 102.4ms. Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics.
  • format: Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in Marinella, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/1-marine
  • version: 20080506
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2008-05-06
  • date/time of measurement start: 2005-03-25
  • date/time of measurement end: 2005-04-01
  • url: /download/isti/rural/1-marine
    • 2-marine: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in Marinella, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a intertransmission time varying from 5 to 20 ms for 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mb/s speeds (be sure to check the transmission times). The beacon is sent every 102.4ms. Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics.
  • format: Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in Marinella, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/2-marine
  • version: 20080506
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2008-05-06
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-04
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-05
  • url: /download/isti/rural/2-marine
    • 3-navpol: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in poligono di Navacchio (poligono means shooting range), Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a intertransmission time varying from 5 to 20 ms for 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mb/s speeds (be sure to check the transmission times). The beacon is sent every 102.4ms. Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics.
  • format: Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in poligono di Navacchio, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/3-navpol
  • version: 20080506
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2008-05-06
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-10
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-10
  • url: /download/isti/rural/3-navpol
    • 4-navzin: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in campo zingari di Navacchio (campo zingari means gipsy field), Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The names come form the name of the locations: Marinella, poligono di Navacchio (poligono means shooting range), campo zingari di Navacchio (campo zingari means gipsy field). The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a intertransmission time varying from 5 to 20 ms for 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mb/s speeds (be sure to check the transmission times). The beacon is sent every 102.4ms. Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics.
  • format: Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in campo zingari di Navacchio, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/4-navzin
  • version: 20080506
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2008-05-06
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-11
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-11
  • url: /download/isti/rural/4-navzin
    • 5-navpol: Traces of transmission distance vs. packet loss measurement in 802.11 ad hoc networks on a wide uncultivated field.
  • configuration: These are the data measured in poligono di Navacchio (poligono means shooting range), Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field. The laptops are two IBM Thinkpad R40e laptops (Celeron 2 GHz with 256 MB ram running Debian Linux with a 2.6.8 kernel), equipped with CNet CNWLC-811 wireless cards and standard drivers. Retransmission, RTS/CTS and fragmentation are all disabled, long preambles are used. Frames are sent to the network card with a intertransmission time varying from 5 to 20 ms for 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mb/s speeds (be sure to check the transmission times). The beacon is sent every 102.4ms. Each file name is built like this: rcv_SPEED_DISTANCE_LENGTH where SPEED is the transmission speed (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mb/s), DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and LENGTH is the frame length (500, 1000, 1500 bytes). The fields marked with an asterisk (*) below are always 0, because the network card used for the measurements in this directory cannot give these statistics.
  • format: Each line contains these fields: - receive time, or 0 when packet is not received at all - lenght of the frame in bytes to data: to obtain the whole frame lenght one must add an LLC/SNAP header, CRC and MAC header. There are three data lengths: 500, 1000 and 1500 bytes. The respective frame durations can be computed as: +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |len[ms]| 1 Mb/s| 2 Mb/s|5.5Mb/s|11 Mb/s| +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ | 500 B | 5.154 | 2.954 | 1.555 | 1.154 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1000 B | 9.154 | 4.954 | 2.282 | 1.518 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ |1500 B |13.154 | 6.954 | 3.009 | 1.881 | +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+ - sequence number starting from 0 *- quality level read from the network card - signal level read from the network card: multiply by 0.6 to get dB *- noise level read from the network card - status: 1 for lost frames, 0 for received frames *- number of corrupted bits in frames received with wrong CRC
  • description: These traces are the data measured in poligono di Navacchio, Navacchio (Pisa) in April, 2006 using two laptops in 802.11 ad hoc mode at different distance on a wide uncultivated field.
  • last modified: 2008-05-15
  • dataname: isti/rural/packet_loss/5-navpol
  • version: 20080506
  • change: the initial version
  • release date: 2008-05-06
  • date/time of measurement start: 2006-04-13
  • date/time of measurement end: 2006-04-13
  • url: /download/isti/rural/5-navpol
Instructions: 

The files in this directory are a CRAWDAD dataset hosted by IEEE DataPort. 

About CRAWDAD: the Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data At Dartmouth is a data resource for the research community interested in wireless networks and mobile computing. 

CRAWDAD was founded at Dartmouth College in 2004, led by Tristan Henderson, David Kotz, and Chris McDonald. CRAWDAD datasets are hosted by IEEE DataPort as of November 2022. 

Note: Please use the Data in an ethical and responsible way with the aim of doing no harm to any person or entity for the benefit of society at large. Please respect the privacy of any human subjects whose wireless-network activity is captured by the Data and comply with all applicable laws, including without limitation such applicable laws pertaining to the protection of personal information, security of data, and data breaches. Please do not apply, adapt or develop algorithms for the extraction of the true identity of users and other information of a personal nature, which might constitute personally identifiable information or protected health information under any such applicable laws. Do not publish or otherwise disclose to any other person or entity any information that constitutes personally identifiable information or protected health information under any such applicable laws derived from the Data through manual or automated techniques. 

Please acknowledge the source of the Data in any publications or presentations reporting use of this Data. 

Citation:

Paolo Barsocchi, Gabriele Oligeri, Francesco Potortì , isti/rural, https://doi.org/10.15783/C7G01C , Date: 20080506

 

Dataset Files

Documentation

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File isti-rural-readme.txt1.59 KB

These datasets are part of Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data (CRAWDAD). CRAWDAD began in 2004 at Dartmouth College as a place to share wireless network data with the research community. Its purpose was to enable access to data from real networks and real mobile users at a time when collecting such data was challenging and expensive. The archive has continued to grow since its inception, and starting in summer 2022 is being housed on IEEE DataPort.

Questions about CRAWDAD? See our CRAWDAD FAQ. Interested in submitting your dataset to the CRAWDAD collection? Get started, by submitting an Open Access Dataset.