The e-Learning in Bosnia and Herzegovina Classrooms

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Dzenana Rustempasic
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E-learning is a type of learning by using electronic technologies to access an educational program outside of a traditional classroom. As conventional classrooms continue to be transformed into digital, teachers must deliver lectures through multiple learning modes. Digitally enriched content and personalized learning, should be the primary way of teaching, as well as collaborative and interactive learning. The paper presents issues related to education in a virtual environment, the role of virtual reality, and artificial intelligence that is increasingly entering the classrooms of developed countries. The paper explores what application of artificial intelligence means for the development and broader implementation of electronic learning in virtual classrooms around the world, as well as in developing countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper presents the advantages and opportunities that contribute to the improvement of e-learning in educational institutions and the benefits for students and other involved parties in the educational process, such as teachers and parents.


The  e-Learning in  Bosnia and Herzegovina Classrooms

Dzenana, Rustempasic, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina,




Electronic (E)-learning is a type of learning by using electronic technologies to access an educational program outside traditional classrooms that are increasingly being demanded by many systems of education. As traditional classrooms continue to be transformed into digital, teachers are expected to adopt multiple learning modes. Digitally enriched content and personalized learning should be the primary way of teaching, as well as collaborative and interactive learning. Contrary to the continuous development of technology and students who regularly encounter computers from an early age, teachers do not have that privilege to be supported in successfully introducing technology into the classroom. The paper presents how the lack of funds influences a teacher's readiness to embrace technology into their teaching practice.

The paper explores E-learning issues related to virtual environment reality and artificial intelligence that is increasingly entering the classrooms of developed countries and' what application of artificial intelligence means for the development and broader implementation of  E-learning in virtual classrooms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  The primary method of collecting data was through an open question survey distributed to students in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For research purposes, schools were chosen on the base of how often their students have access to computers or the Internet.  Four schools from urban and four schools from rural areas were chosen, and questionaries' were delivered directly to students by the researcher. The research aims to examine students' views on the benefits that online education has in the educational process in classrooms in Sarajevo and Bosnia and Herzegovina.  The survey provides an analysis of the potentials for implementation of the e-learning model in secondary schools in Sarajevo Canton and the rest of the country. The paper presents the advantages and opportunities that contribute to the improvement of e-learning in educational institutions and the benefits for students and other involved parties in the educational process, such as teachers and parents. Students enrolled in this research have a highly positive attitude towards e-learning, which leads to the conclusion that students are willing to learn using  IT solutions in the classroom.



Keywords:Artificial Intelligence, Digital Literacy; E-learning, Virtual Learning Environment, Virtual Reality

1. Introduction

Today's modern society is characterized by the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT).  One particular field that presents special interest both for society and individuals are education.  The advent of computers and the development of the Internet had a significant role in the development of distance learning.

Distance Learning is a relatively new field, only a hundred years old. Gunawardena & McIsaac (2003) stated that distance learning had followed extraordinary growth worldwide since the early 1980s. Due to the effect of technological advances, its form has changed rapidly from early correspondence education, in which printed materials were primarily sent to high school students, to a form of learning that can be accessed from anywhere at any time. Distance learning is a field that needs to be continuously revised and renewed mainly because of its related dynamics such as technology[1]

Even though students and professors are located in remote locations, they can regularly communicate with each other.

Changes in online education that allowed some of its processes to be carried out in a different place and at different times than the traditionalclassroom practice began to occur long before the advent of computers.

First, as a form of correspondence education, and then in other modalities, students were provided with an opportunity to be educated without having to attend regular classes.  

The first significant steps in programmed teaching were developed by Sidney Pressey in the 1920s and further taken over by Burrhus Skinner in the mid-1950s. Skinner's ideas for improving the teaching and learning process were mainly focused on two facts: first, that students learn at different paces, and second, that, in accordance with the dominant theories of learning stimulus-response, feedback must carefully monitor behavior. This, however, is not the case in a school setting, where students are forced to follow the imposed pace of feedback from lecturers and usually receive a delayed response because teachers need at least one day to correct assignments.

Skinner believed that hiring one teacher per student would solve the problem, but as this was practically impossible to implement in practice, Skinner proposed and worked on the introduction of learning machines, on which each student could work at his own pace and receive direct support after the correctly solved task.2

In essence, the development of programmed learning aims to computerize teaching, structure information, test student knowledge, and provide instant feedback to students, without human intervention other than in designing hardware and software and selecting and loading content and evaluating questions. B.F. Skinner began experimenting with teaching machines that used programmed learning in 1954. Based on the theory of behaviorism Skinner's teaching devices were one of the first forms of computer-based learning[3].  




Although the idea of ​​e-Learning was still in its infancy in the sixties (this was a decade when PLATO, probably the first experiment in the world of e-learning was developed and first launched), Marshall McLuhan had a clear vision of the future of education, McLuhan believed that for better education, we need fewer teachers, more technology, and, most importantly, a more positive view of technology. As a historian by education, McLuhan noticed that education had not changed much in many aspects since finding the Gutenberg printing machine at the end of the 15th century.   McLuhan considered that we should stop relying primarily on visual delivery methods and start creating a multi-sensory, interactive learning environment based on students' needs and interests [ 4].

E-learning primarily transmits education through computer and network of digital technology that includes the Internet, intranet, computer, satellite TV, CDROM, audio, and video resources. Therefore, e-learning can be broadly defined as the use of Information and Communication Technology or shortened ICTs to enhance and support learning that can range from teachers and learners using email for communication up to online courses [ 5].

The process of developing distance learning is entirely conditioned by the use of modern information technologies such as computers, educational software, computer networks, and the Internet.  However, distance learning has limitations on the technical level of the application of ICT by instructors who offer this model of education and the level of technical equipment of students who want to use it. The success of distance learning is further related to the willingness of educational institutions to embrace ICT in the learning process.

The educational system in Bosnia and Herzegovina is quite rigid, and traditional teaching is still the most common form of teaching. Looking at the elementary and secondary level of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is evident that the teachers are still resorting to the traditional methods and techniques of teaching. Chalk and talk is the standard way of transferring knowledge. The war has made the continuous professional development of the teachers impossible and caused the lack of a qualified teaching workforce[6].

The e-learning model currently presents in Bosnia and Herzegovina is in its infancy stage. Despite the development of technology and the presence of e-learning tools, we are witnessing that in Bosnian schools, students still sit in rows of benches and read from textbooks or fill out worksheets. The teacher gives a lecture standing in front of the class in ex-cathedra style, and each student receives information in the same manner as all other students. Their different learning needs and learning styles are neglected and do not bring positive results.   

The number of computers in the secondary education system overall covers 8.4% of the student population. However, there is a lack of statistics on the exact number of computers in secondary schools. The number of computers with an internet connection in the secondary education system overall covers 6.8% of the student population. In comparison, 42.8% of IT companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina are dissatisfied with the content of the IT curricula and learning processes[7].

 Despite the development of technology and the presence of e-learning tools, we are witnessing that in Bosnian schools, students still sit in rows of benches and read from textbooks or fill out worksheets. The teacher gives a lecture standing in front of the class in ex-cathedra style, and each student receives information in the same manner as all other students. Their different learning needs and learning styles are neglected and do not bring positive results. 

 According to the data, 61.0% of citizens have used a computer, and 31.6% of respondents have never used a computer. The share of computer users by gender is 64,4%  of male users and 58,4%of female users. The results of the survey on the usage of  ICT in households and by individuals in Bosnia and Herzegovina have shown that 69.2% of households have access to the Internet, and 29.6% of households do not have access to the Internet [8].


Picture1. [8]

 Older teachers need to learn how to adapt to new technological changes, both inside and outside of the classroom. Inside the classroom, teachers need to learn how to integrate technology into everyday teachings, such as using computer programs, iPads, and smartboards. Outside the classroom, many teachers learn how to use the Internet by having to access an electronic diary or exchange emails with parents as a part of their regular teachers' duties.  Often teachers receive emails and messages on social networks or  Viber groups from their student's parents. As the world adapts to this digital age, teachers must follow this trend.

Research, which measured the application of this model in the educational system, is based on determining existing conditions in educational institutions concerning usage of ICT in today's classrooms as well as potentials for the implementation of the e-learning model. Attitudes of primary stakeholder groups for this venture were examined with the overall goal to form an e-learning model that would have a realistic prospect of success.






2. Theoretical framework

 According to Anderson and Dron, historically, distance learning has undergone three pedagogical approaches: Cognitive-Behaviorism, Social-Constructivism, and Connectivism. The authors state that cognitive-behavioral models have defined the first generation of individualized distance education. In addition to providing opportunities for a large number of students to receive education at a lower cost than traditional education, distance education ensured full access and freedom for students.[9].

Cognitive-behaviorism and theories of social-constructivism argue that learning takes place within a person, and even socially constructivist views hold that learning is a social process that promotes the individuality of the individualin learning. The Connectivist approach focuses on the learning process as well as what has been learned. In the modern age, in which learning tools or the virtual learning environment have gained popularity, the quality of information learned and the importance of turning information into a knowledge process has become more important for distance learning [10].

Cognitivism often takes a computer information processing model. Learning is viewed as a process of inputs, managed in short term memory, and coded for long-term recall. Cindy Buell details this process: "In cognitive theories, knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructs in the learner's mind, and the learning process is the means by which these symbolic representations are committed to memory"[11].

Constructivism suggests that learners create knowledge as they attempt to understand their experience while behaviorism and cognitivism view knowledge as external to the learner and the learning process as the act of internalizing knowledge. Constructivism assumes that learners are not empty vessels to be filled with knowledge. Instead, learners are actively attempting to create meaning. Learners often select and pursue their learning. Constructivist principles acknowledge that real-life learning is messy and complicated. Classrooms that emulate the "fuzziness" of this learning will be more effective in preparing learners for life-long learning [12].

For Siemens), it is the connections and the way information flows that result in knowledge existing beyond the individual. Learning becomes the ability to tap into significant flows of information and to follow those flows that are significant. He argues that:" 'Connectivism presents a model of learning that acknowledges the tectonic shifts in society where learning is no longer an internal, individualistic activity. Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database)[13].


Behaviorism is a learning theory that considers learning to be a change in observable behavior that results from experience and lasts over time. Based on B. F. 'Skinner's concept that behavior changes because of contiguity or the pairing of stimuli, insights, goals, ideas, and any other change that exists only in the 'learner's mind are not considered.

It is a psychological theory based on the assumption that the environment determines human behavior through association and reinforcement.[14]

 Learning theories examine the depth of learning and quality of information absorbed as a result of a learning process are used as a basis for the research. They prove that a student is an active part of the learning process and not just its object. Students in online learning have an opportunity to choose time, place, and content they want to explore, learn, and acquire during the learning process. The conventional classroom is not the only space where learning can or must take place. On the contrary, online classroom gives more variety of learning if only appropriately implemented.


 3.  Methodology

A study in this research sought to analyze the e-learning in B&H classrooms. This was done through seeking to answer the questions

1) What are the benefits of e-learning over traditional learning

2)  How different e-learning tools facilitate this approach to learning

3) Examine students' attitude towards e-learning and their preferences

4) Demonstrate how providing learning through an online platform encourages.IT literacy and provides opportunities for high school students to succeed in a globally competitive world.

 The survey provides an analysis of potentials for e-learning model implementation in secondary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other educational institutions opportunities to define and create a national e-learning strategy.  The survey was focused on collecting information necessary for creating the adoption of e-learning model in secondary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Survey respondents were students aged 16-19, both sexes, 150 in total. The survey was conducted in December 2018 in eight public schools across the country. The study adopted a qualitative study, a student satisfaction survey, to explore students' views on the benefits that online education has in the educational process in classrooms in Sarajevo and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Data were collected through student satisfaction questionnaire that was completed by students during the school hours. Finally, after modifications and improvements were made to obtain a more efficient instrument, a pilot instrument was administered to students in two highs schools in Sarajevo to ensure students understand the meaning of statements.

 Few modifications were made in Section 3. to enable the final version of the questionnaire was given to the target population via personal contact.

    The primary method of collecting data was through an open question survey distributed to students in different parts of Bosnia. For research purposes, schools were chosen on the base of how often their students have access to computers or the Internet.  Four schools from urban and four schools from rural areas were chosen, and questionaries' were delivered directly to students by the researcher.



The Likert type questionnaire with five responses was applied: 1-"disagree";2 - "disagree"; 3 - "neither agree nor disagree"; 4 - "agree" and 5 -completely agree." Categories were administered to students  to respond to interaction  (Section 2),  prior experience (Section 3),   students'  competencies (knowledge, skills, and values) related to the virtual learning environment (section 4) and  cost of learning in a virtual learning environment  (Section 5) statements or claims following section 1 on ''students' background information.

The first part of the questionnaire covers information about respondents' computer usage habits, such as questions about the frequency of computer use. In contrast, the other two questions relate to knowing the meaning of e-learning and attending e-courses. After modifications and improvements were made to obtain a more efficient instrument, questionnaires were administered to the target population through personal contact. The questionnaires were distributed to 8 schools in 4 towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Respondents were informed of the purpose,  and anonymity and confidentiality of responses were ensured. Finally, respondents were given a questionnaire to complete during December 2018. The respondents got familiar with the purpose of the survey and the process of completing the questionnaire. All respondents filled in the questionnaire voluntarily, independently and anonymously, and the estimated time to complete the questionnaire was ten minutes. Exploratory factor analysis, a principal component analysis method, was used to determine the validity of the survey. Analysis of the data was obtained using the SPSS statistical software. Thequestions in the second section were formulated as Yes/No questions, while statements in Section 2 and Section 3 consisted of  Likert-type questions.

Quantitative data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using  SPSS  in order to answer research questions. Data analysis procedures included factor analysis.

Multidimensionality of the instrument was tested, an analysis of the main components was carried out. To check the correlation matrix is suitable for carrying out factor analysis, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and the Bartlett test were conducted. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test shows the proportion of variance that is common or can be explained by latent factors. When the value of this test is more significant than 0.60, it is considered that data is suitable for carrying out factor analysis. In this case, the value is 0.870. The Bartlett test checks if our matrix is ​​identical to the identity matrix. If our model were identical to the identity matrix, this would mean that the matrix variables were unconnected and would not make sense to carry out a factor analysis.

Table 1. shows the factor structure of the particles, with the values ​​of the characteristic root and the percentage of the explained variance of each component. Given the content of the particles and their projections on the elements, the first element corresponds to the interaction of teachers and students, the other part corresponds to the benefits that students have from the virtual learning environment, and the third corresponds to the economic aspect (costs for individual students and the scope of work).

The test must be significant with at least 95% security in order for data to be comparable to factorization. In our case, the approximate χ2 is 442,256 and is significant at 99,9%. The results of these tests on our data indicate that it is justifiable to carry out a factor analysis. Analysis of the main components resulted in a three-factor solution. The characteristic roots of the three components are more significant than one, and together, they explain 55% of the variance.   

Dimensionality was added to the correlation matrix, meaning that underlying components could be identified in the subjects' answers. The logical and content analysis of the particles indicates that the first component corresponds to the quality of the student-teacher interaction. The second component corresponds to the assessment of the user that the virtual environment has for learning and students. In contrast, the third one corresponds to the economic aspect of the virtual learning environment (VLE).

A statistically significant correlation was found between particles related to a previous experience that students had in the virtual learning environment. A statistically significant correlation was found between the first and second group questions on the level 0.05 or p <0.05

There is a high correlation on the level of significance 0.069, or p<0.069 between the components teacher-student and the benefits of the virtual learning environment at the 0.01 level. It was expected that the correlation is high; that is, the teacher is an essential factor in the teaching process and that it contributes to better interaction in the educational process. It is vital for the individual student that ongoing daily communication with teachers is maintained. The student perceives that the virtual learning environment gives them more opportunities to access a myriad of information, more frequent contact with the instructor or teacher, which allows him to ask questions in constant communication, which is not common practice in the traditional classroom environment.


Table 1.

4.  Results and discussion

The claims are divided into three sections.

From Graph 1, it can be concluded that only 1.4% of respondents rarely answered on the statement," How often do you have access to information from the Internet "and 3.6% of students answered occasionally. In comparison, 35.5% of students answered that they often have internet access, and as many as 59.4% of students answered that they have internet access daily.

Slightly more than half of the respondents access the Internet daily, which indicates the fact that most students regularly access the Internet in search of information that is not necessarily related to educational content.


Graph 1.

Graph 2. Previous Experiences in Computer Use show the percentages of student responses to claims related to students' previous experiences of listening to online subjects. From the graph, it can be seen that as many as 69.9% of students used synchronous conversation, and 73% of them listened to subjects where the content was delivered online. These data confirm the claim that students show great interest in online learning and online content that helps them acquire knowledge in a more appealing and exciting mode .


Graph 2.

In the second group of statements related to previous experiences, respondents stated that they had the opportunity to attend an online course, which refers in part to the online learning week that is carried out in schools in Sarajevo Canton since 2017/2018 school year. Educational materials and accompanying exams are uploaded on the Google online platform.  Students are required to complete tasks and tests and upload them on the subject stream on the Google platform in a due date and time.

A relatively low percentage of responses on the use of forums and synchronous discussion indicates that students had no experience in attending online subjects. That would require the use of forums and discussions with teachers and other students in order to fulfill the tasks of the online course, such as projects or case studies that are supposed to be completed with fellow students who take the same subject.Section3 examines the attitude of students towards the virtual learning environment and the economic cost of VLE, ​​which, in addition to financial costs, also includes the time and effort invested by students.





The analysis of the results showed that the respondents generally have a positive attitude towards the virtual learning environment.

Students believe VLE helps them to achieve a closer relationship with teachers and other fellow students; to be more precise, 70.1% of students agree with the statement that VLE enhances the relationship among students and teachers. Additionally, 78.1% of respondents believe that VLE allows teachers to provide students with information that comes from multiple sources, which is more than what they receive in a traditional classroom where teachers rely only on preapproved textbooks. They also agree that a virtual environment increases constructive interaction between teachers and students, with 70.1% of respondents agree   VLE  allows students to ask questions to teachers at any time, not just within one school hour.

Online learning and a virtual environment let students have a flexible attitude towards learning, i.e., to access learning materials when they want and where they want, a statement with which 70% of respondents agreed.  However, in regards to the cost component, it is evident from students' answers that VLE increases the workload of students, a statement agreed by 55.8% of respondents. It implies that students must invest much more time in independent work to successfully meet the requirements of online courses or online subjects as most of the work is done independently, without teacher's supervision or control, which is inevitable in a traditional classroom.

Since e-learning requires a high level of self-discipline and personal time management, it may not be appropriate for certain types of students. Students who attend or take online subjects must be highly motivated to take full advantage of the media, as often, the experience of online learning can be impersonal. Those who are looking for more personal touch and face to face interactions are better in the conventional classroom where they can access teachers physically during the class.

For some educational institutions, it is more convenient to pass on the cost of photocopying to students by putting all lecture notes and course brochures online. Such practices often mean that course materials are in an inappropriate format for online learning. Organizations that organize courses or schools that offer online courses need to develop new technical skills as well as course design skills to suit the new medium and make it easier for students to access the necessary materials without incurring high costs.

One of the essential items of online learning that students rated as positive is that e-learning offers opportunities for discussion with other students and teachers. They do not usually have such opportunities in a traditional classroom where time for questions is minimal, and the discussion that (students find as very useful for the learning process) takes place rarely in schools.

School programs do not offer the opportunity for discussion that goes beyond the official curriculum. Teachers are required to follow syllabi from which they cannot deviate even when it benefited students. That is certainly a limiting factor and does not contribute to the interaction that students rate as a positive and desirable in the learning process.

Comparison of results obtained by examining the study of the application of e-learning in Bosnia and Herzegovina with developing countries  showed development of online learning opportunities had been accompanied by changes in legislation related to online learning.

 US states and the District of Columbia passed 157 laws related to online learning between 2008 and 2012. (Molnar et al., 2013). Iowa and Wisconsin are among the states that have legislation in place to expand online learning opportunities and make them available to students.

In 2013, Iowa law initiated the development of a model of an online learning program, called Iowa Learning Online (Iowa 2013Acts, Chapter 121). In 2012, the Wisconsin Virtual School and the Wisconsin eSchool Network signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Wisconsin Department of Public Administration (2007 Wisconsin Act 222) to meet state legislation requirements that provide schools with equal access to high-quality online education across the state. While this report focuses on two federal states in the Midwestern United States, the results may be beneficial to other states by potentially providing a valuable framework for considering online learning options and types of monitoring and support for the e-learning model [15]

Wisconsin high schools have used online courses to meet the needs of their students for several educational reasons. Among schools in the state of Wisconsin that reported offering online learning in 2012/13  school year, the reasons they cited as very important or somewhat necessary for enrolling students in online courses is

  • to allow students to get points from subjects they missed or had a negative grade (89%),
  • to provide a subject that is not available (88%),
  • to reduce schedule conflicts for students (86%),
  • to provide an alternative learning environment (79%),
  •  to personalize the learning of students who have educational difficulties (76%).

One of the biggest challenges or problems faced by schools in the state of Wisconsin and most commonly encountered in implementing online learning is the school administration's concern about the quality of online courses or online subjects offered [16].

InBosnia&Hercegovina, each level of governance needs to develop its curricula based on the Common Core curricula, which should increase the quality of DSC in IVET. The absence of established and reliable monitoring and assessment mechanisms, at both the state and the entity and Brčko District levels, prevents constructive policy development and tracking of the effectiveness of existing DSC programs. This is coupled with a lack of funding, as a result of which the general infrastructure in schools for advanced DSC education relies mainly on donor investments, and is therefore inadequate. There is also a deficit of ICT workers in the labor market[17].

Possibilities offered by e-learning go beyond the traditional curriculum framework and the law-imposed curriculum that does not accompany changes in the environment, and accordingly adjust the curricula, and interests of students that is applicable in the digital age. Changes and adoption of new learning models are necessary to provide schools with an education that meets the real needs of its students, followed by the rapid development of information technology,  increasing IT literacy as a prerequisite for integration into the global society and adaptation to the demands of students. 

The success of schools will depend on their ability to meet the needs of future students with their contemporary curriculum, the quality of the teachers, and the way the education content is delivered.

Despite the unfortunate economic situation and low standard of population, Bosnia and Herzegovina are showing a significant upward trend in the use of ICT. Additionally, the impact of globalization, the use of social networks, and immediate access to information provide students with opportunities to choose forms of education; therefore, a significant number of students want to take classes online. There are great opportunities in the technical, pedagogical, and business segments of e-learning, and its implementation should undoubtedly increase in the coming years.


5. Artificial intelligence assistants

Artificial intelligence is another emerging technology that begins to change educational tools and institutions and change the way the future might look like education. Artificial intelligence is already being applied in education, primarily in some tools that help develop skills and testing systems. Since educational solutions that involve the use of artificial intelligence continue to emerge, it is believed that it can help fill gaps in learning and teaching and enable schools and teachers to work more than ever before [18]. 

Although most experts believe that the physical presence of teachers is irreplaceable, there will be many significant changes in teachers' work as well as the best practices in education [19].

Enhancing e-learning with a more comprehensive social experience enables learners to interact with each other as they would in the actual classroom. Students can complete group projects together, and hang out outside of the school, enriching their learning experience. Virtual reality already enhances certain aspects of e-learning. Companies, schools, and universities are experimenting with this new technology and are trying to understand how best to integrate virtual reality into curricula. Artificial intelligence is part of our everyday life and becomes more present in world classrooms.

By using tools such as Siri, Amazon, and Alexa, the possibilities of artificial intelligence in education are just beginning to be realized. While artificial intelligence will not wholly replace teachers, it is possible to transform the way teachers teach, and learners learn [ 20].

Artificial intelligence tools enable the creation of global classrooms accessible to everyone, including those who speak or use different languages ​​or who may have visual or hearing impairments. Presentation Translator, for example, is a free plugin for PowerPoint that creates the subtitles for the materials teachers prepare for students in real-time.  Additionally, it opens opportunities for students who are not able to attend school regularly, among which are students struggling with chronic illness, students with disabilities, gifted students,  or those looking for a topic not being available in a school.  Artificial intelligence can help break barriers between learning and traditional classes. It will provide opportunities for children to learn in a way that suits their personal needs and preferences as well as learning styles. For years, teachers are struggling to help students adopt knowledge and learn effectively while dealing with the individualized educational needs of every single student. It becomes incredibly difficult in an overcrowded classroom where everyone is expected to pass the same standardized test, regardless of their abilities.


The use of artificial intelligence has the potential to change the traditional and potentially damaging model of modern teaching that corresponds to a standard that should apply to all, in which all students, regardless of individual differences and preferences, should fit in. Machine learning algorithms have already begun to help teachers fill in knowledge gaps, pointing to subjects with which students have the most difficulty.

A personal tutor is another feature in the educational process that chatbots can do with ease, helping students identifies problematic issues during their studies through interviews. The information thus acquired can then be used to create a personalized curriculum for each student individually. Chatbots would then follow students from the beginning to the end of formal education, record their progress, and provide feedback and suggestions. The individual preference for the use of artificial intelligence in the classroom is the solicitation in the assessment of tests and other repetitive duties.

The artificial intelligence in the assistant's assistant could teach lessons from the curriculum, or provide additional information and metrics for learning the students they need, without disturbing the natural course of time or hindering the rest of the department [21].  

With the advance of artificial intelligence, it becomes possible that the machine reads the expression on the face of the student, indicating that the machines are developing to the extent that they will be able to recognize the feelings of the person or the emotional state of the students. Machines will be able to modify the lesson in order to adapt it to the student's condition. The idea of ​​adapting the curriculum to the needs of each student is still not sustainable today but will be in the distant future for machines using artificial intelligence[22]. 



6. Virtual reality

Virtual reality (abbreviatedVR) simulates multiple senses, including vision, hearing, and touches, immersing students into the artificial world like no other technology. In this way, virtual reality occupies students in the learning environment. When the VR handset is placed; this leads to a simulated setting that completely distances them from the actual environment. The primary object of virtual reality is a visual simulation. Each handset aims to perfect its approach to creating a 3D environment. EachV.R. handset sets the screen (or two - one for each eye) in front of your eyes, eliminating any interaction with the real world. Between the screen and the eye, there are usually two lenses for automatic focusing that are adjusted based on the individual movement and positioning of the eye. Visual displays on the screen are displayed using a mobile phone or an HDMI cable that is connected to the computer [23]. 

Virtual reality allows learners to learn through practical experience because students are immersed in a world that simulates real life. Learning through experience has been proven to be the most effective way of learning, and research has shown that it increases the quality of learning and retention by 70-90%. Through this type of learning, the information is more meaningful, and those who learn can connect with it because they use information in their way through their responses and behaviors.

Research has shown that virtual reality can increase engagement and improve retention learned that the fundamental challenges that a traditional school is struggling. Some of the benefits of experiential learning with virtual reality are that repetitive learning can dramatically be improved by visualizing learning materials while providing a safe learning environment. When students make mistakes during travel, the consequences are minimal because they appear in a safe and controlled virtual world. Students learn the theory about a particular topic, which they can then experience in an interactive 3D environment, which gives pupils an unforgettable learning experience [24].

These virtual adventures can be embedded in the emotional center of the human brain by misleading the mind to believe that users are really "teleported" out of the classroom into an environment that fully occupies their senses. Research has already shown that we remember only 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, and 30% of what we hear and see together. However, virtual reality can deceive the brain's core so that it can feel that a dinosaur or emotional depression is being haunted by life in a refugee camp. The joy of walking on the moon's surface or passing through the deadly trenches of the First World War can trigger an emotional reaction deeper than any film.

According to a scientific study of biometric monitoring of the eye movement and direction of view, electr  dermal reaction, and heart rate, 27% of users of the virtual reality were more emotionally involved in these contents than those available through a two-dimensional, conventional video [25].

At the beginning of last year, the US teachers met 55 million new students whom they can offer new tools able to capture students' attention and to inspire their imagination with the help of virtual reality. Hundreds of new intriguing experiences, many of which are free, can transfer students back through history where they can enjoy critical historical events or travel through our solar system without actually taking a school bus [26].

ConclusionsThe organization of the online program and online classes enable students to access content and fulfill tasks according to their time organization.  Knowledge is acquired at place and time that increase the opportunities for personal growth and development. Most students use the Internet every day and communicate with peers on social networks, which undoubtedly contributes to their readiness to accept newI.T. solutions in the learning process. Therefore, the differences in attitudes towards e-learning are also related to the purpose and frequency of using the Internet. Students, when being asked to respond on issues concerning the virtual learning environment and the application of e-learning tools, have confirmed that e-learning offers opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills that are not available in the schools they have attended.

There was a statistically significant correlation between previous experiences that students had in the virtual learning environment, meaning that positive learning experiences and communication in the virtual learning environment influenced students' preferences and their choice of modalities of learning. Students enrolled in this research have a highly positive attitude towards e-learning, which leads to the conclusion that students are willing to learn using IT solutions in the classroom.

One of the main disadvantages of using the e-learning model is that it still heavily relies on social support in the sense that e-learning depends on the teacher's ability and readiness to create and prepare course materials and use online educational tools.  Necessary prerequisites for successful implementation of the e-learning model are the acquisition of appropriate technological infrastructure, adequate educational content produced by teachers who possess computer skills, and a culture that fosters learning and knowledge sharing in a virtual environment. 


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