CRAWDAD novay/cosphere

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Thu, 06/11/2009 - 08:00
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Network traces on the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of one month in the February/March 2007 time frame.

The CoSphere (Communication Context for Adaptive Mobile Applications) trial gathered network traces on the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of approximately one month in the February/March 2007 time frame.

date/time of measurement start: 2007-02-01

date/time of measurement end: 2007-03-13

collection environment: The objective of the CoSphere Trial is to collect network availability and network status traces as observed on multi-homed devices of real users. We ran this experiment with 12 users in a six week period in February/March 2007, logging cellular, 802.11 wireless lan, Bluetooth and (indirectly) fixed USB events on Windows CE devices.

We want to use the traces of this experiment to investigate the possibilities for 'experience-based network resource usage on mobile hosts'. The basic idea is that knowledge on the mobility patterns of the user helps to optimize the usage of network resources by applications on mobile hosts, especially for those applications that have a degree of delay-tolerance. We have focused on the prediction in time of a mobility event of interest, such as 'getting in range of the home 802.11 network'. 

We propose a method using preceding events as predictors for the event of interest, as discussed in the papers Density Estimation for Out-of-Range Events on Personal Mobile Devices and Predicting mobility events on personal devices.

network configuration: The CoSphere trial gathered network traces on the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of approximately one month in the February/March 2007 time frame. The dataset contains information from three different wireless network interfaces - cellular, 802.11 and Bluetooth - and provides insight into the richness and dynamics of the visibility of wireless networks from a user oriented perspective.

data collection methodology: The traces were collected using the Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) software available at



Traceset of the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of one month in the February/March 2007 time frame.

  • file: cosphere.tar.gz
  • description: The CoSphere (Communication Context for Adaptive Mobile Applications) trial gathered network traces on the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of approximately one month in the February/March 2007 time frame.
  • measurement purpose: User Mobility Characterization, Social Network Analysis, Opportunistic Connectivity
  • methodology: The dataset contains the following visibility information:

- the cellular operator name, operator number, location area code (LAC), and cell id (CID) of the associated base station (monitored continuously, storing a new base station when the association changes)

- the cellular operator name and operator number of all in-range cellular networks (scanned once every 5 minutes)

- the service set identifier (SSID), the basic service set identifier (BSSID) and the association state of all in range 802.11 access points (monitored during 1 minute, every 10 minutes)

- the Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) and device name of all in range Bluetooth nodes (scanned once every 5 minutes)

- the remaining battery power percentage

- device attachment to AC power

novay/cosphere/visibility Trace

  • arffNetwork traces of the personal mobile devices of 12 trial participants over a period of one month in the February/March 2007 time frame.

    • configuration: After a scan on a network interface, the visibility state is taken to be constant until the next scan, which means that for 802.11 a change may occur every 10 minutes (more often when the user interacts with the device) and for Bluetooth a change may occur every 5 minutes.
    • format: The traces are stored in files of the Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF, see ), in sparse form. Every line describes the visibility of cellular, 802.11 and Bluetooth networks at a specific time. Lines are not printed at regular intervals, but only when the current visibility state differs from the state described in the previous line.

The sparse .arff file starts with a section describing the 'attributes', followed by a 'data' section describing the value of these attributes. The sparse notation assigns a default value of 0 (zero) to attributes not specified on a data line. We use binary values to indicate whether a base station, access point or node is in range.

Example .arff file: @RELATION visibility @ATTRIBUTE timestamp date % attr 0 @ATTRIBUTE after-reset {0, 1} % attr 1 @ATTRIBUTE batterylevel NUMERIC % attr 2 @ATTRIBUTE on-ac {0, 1} % attr 3 @ATTRIBUTE "cid-copname01-copnumber01-lac1398-cid82300" {0, 1} % attr 4 @ATTRIBUTE "cid-copname01-copnumber01-lac1398-cid23897" {0, 1} % attr 5 @ATTRIBUTE "wlap-inrange-ssid58034-bssid27992" {0, 1} % attr 6 @DATA {0 2007-03-10T16:08:58, 1 1, 2 81, 4 1, 6 1} {0 2007-03-10T16:10:46, 2 80, 4 1} {0 2007-03-10T16:12:06, 2 80, 5 1}

The timestamp, afterreset, batterylevel and on-ac attributes (numbers 0-3) are in every .arff file. The rest of the attributes refer to the visibility of network resources, using the following naming scheme: - cop-copname; nr;-copnumber; nr; Cellular operator - cid-copname nr;-copnumbernr;-lac; nr;-cid; nr; Currently associated cell - wlap-inrange-ssid; nr;-bssid;nr; In range 802.11 access point - wlap-assoc-ssid; nr; -bssid; nr; Currently associated 802.11 access point - btnw-bdaddr; nr; In range Bluetooth node These attributes vary per participant. When the afterreset attribute is set the device was restarted in between the time of the last line and the time of the current line. For convenience, we have included a Python script to transform the .arff files into .txt files in which the full names of visible network entities are used (tested under Python version 2.5.1). Running; python */*.arff from the directory of this README file will generate the .txt files. 


The files in this directory are a CRAWDAD dataset hosted by IEEE DataPort. 

About CRAWDAD: the Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data At Dartmouth is a data resource for the research community interested in wireless networks and mobile computing. 

CRAWDAD was founded at Dartmouth College in 2004, led by Tristan Henderson, David Kotz, and Chris McDonald. CRAWDAD datasets are hosted by IEEE DataPort as of November 2022. 

Note: Please use the Data in an ethical and responsible way with the aim of doing no harm to any person or entity for the benefit of society at large. Please respect the privacy of any human subjects whose wireless-network activity is captured by the Data and comply with all applicable laws, including without limitation such applicable laws pertaining to the protection of personal information, security of data, and data breaches. Please do not apply, adapt or develop algorithms for the extraction of the true identity of users and other information of a personal nature, which might constitute personally identifiable information or protected health information under any such applicable laws. Do not publish or otherwise disclose to any other person or entity any information that constitutes personally identifiable information or protected health information under any such applicable laws derived from the Data through manual or automated techniques. 

Please acknowledge the source of the Data in any publications or presentations reporting use of this Data. 


Arjan Peddemors, novay/cosphere, , Date: 20090501

license: (adapted from Rice data license @ crawdad)

1. We grant you a nonexclusive, nontransferable license to use the data and/or code for commercial, educational, and/or research purposes only. You agree to not redistributed the data/code without our previous express written approval.

2. The traces we provide are anonymized. To respect the privacy of those human subjects whose activity is captured by the data, you will not attempt to reverse the anonymization process. This may include but is not limited to identifying specific cell ids, access points, node addresses, the actual users, or their location.

3. You agree to acknowledge the source of the data, i.e., the MobilityModels'08 paper or one of our more recent papers describing the data.


Dataset Files

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File novay-cosphere-readme.txt1.56 KB

These datasets are part of Community Resource for Archiving Wireless Data (CRAWDAD). CRAWDAD began in 2004 at Dartmouth College as a place to share wireless network data with the research community. Its purpose was to enable access to data from real networks and real mobile users at a time when collecting such data was challenging and expensive. The archive has continued to grow since its inception, and starting in summer 2022 is being housed on IEEE DataPort.

Questions about CRAWDAD? See our CRAWDAD FAQ. Interested in submitting your dataset to the CRAWDAD collection? Get started, by submitting an Open Access Dataset.