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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by qualitative impairment in social reciprocity, and by repetitive, restricted, and stereotyped behaviors/interests. Previously considered rare, ASD is now recognized to occur in more than 1% of children. Despite continuing research advances, their pace and clinical impact have not kept up with the urgency to identify ways of determining the diagnosis at earlier ages, selecting optimal treatments, and predicting outcomes. For the most part this is due to the complexity and heterogeneity of ASD.

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The demand for artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is rapidly increasing. However, significant challenges arise from data scarcity and privacy concerns, particularly in medical imaging. While existing generative models have achieved success in image synthesis and image-to-image translation tasks, there remains a gap in the generation of 3D semantic medical images. To address this gap, we introduce Med-DDPM, a diffusion model specifically designed for semantic 3D medical image synthesis, effectively tackling data scarcity and privacy issues.

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