REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING

REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING

Citation Author(s):
VINOSHA
BALASUBRAMANI
Submitted by:
VINOSHA BALASUB...
Last updated:
Fri, 12/21/2018 - 09:30
DOI:
10.21227/j65m-zn06
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Abstract: 

Fruit disease causes lot of economic loss and major loss in agricultural production all over the world. The crops are affected by uneven climatic conditions. Because of that diseases on plant is increased and agriculture yield is decreased[1]. Now days, the conditions become worst because of bacterial diseases. Increasing  population burdens farmers to increase yield.Modern agriculture will overcome this type of effect and improves agriculture[1][4]. So,the image processing technique is used to identify the disease during its growing stage .At that time we may make some prevention to the other fruits in the field. Several methods in image processing can be used to overcome the disease[3].K-means clustering technique which is used for segmentation of image, some sort of segmented image will get extracted,some image will be finalized  by using Multi-class Support vector machine[2][3]. The image which is enhanced where the segmentation is done using k-means and thresholding based segmentation where the extraction of disease in done. Discrete Wavelet Transform method extracts a set of visual features of diseased portions. Based on the extracted featuresset, a SVM classifier identifies the affected disease type and the another system which uses two database, one is for already stored image and another for query of image[6]. Web based system which is used to identify the disease of fruit for non experts, based on picture which will be represented by the symptoms of fruit[5].

Instructions: 

INTRODUCTION:

In olden days,people identify fruit disease by their naked eye observability and made some precautions. In this paper three fruits namely apple, pomegranate,grapes and its diseases are explained[7]. The plant disease and fruit disease may affect the yield of the growth. There are several spectroscopic and imaging techniques are used. Some fruit disease can be identified by their leaves which gets affected[8][9].Fruit disease is automatically detected by using automatic detection method to overcome the spreading of disease to the growing fruit.Pathogens , virus, fungi which when attack the fruit affect the fruit. This will cause several disease to the people who eat such fruit[10]. So, the several methods were implemented to identify the fruit disease using image processing. The several algorithms are used with the help of matlab to this process.

 Discrete wavelet transform is one of the method which helps to identify in visual form. There are two methods one is destructive method and other is non destructive method. In destructive method, the fruit will be removed and process will be carried out[10][11]. In non destructive method the dimensions of the fruit will be taken without removing the fruit[12].The artificial neural network concept is also used with the two set of images to be calculated.The k-means algorithm with SVM concept.The color,morphology and texture of the fruit can be extracted by the feature.

 

IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

IMAGE ACQUITION

 This is the process in which the image is captured and stored in digital media in digital format[13].

IMAGE PREPROCESSING

It will resize ,smoothen and remove the noise signals present in it.This will helps in converting RGB image to grey image.The contrast of image will also be increased at certain level[13].

IMAGE SEGMENTATION

There will be several categories in image.They will  classified according to their classes by this segmentation process[14].

FEATURE EXTRACTION

There will be color, texture and shape .This will be obtained by this step[15].

CLASSIFICATION

The numerical property of the image will be analysed and they will be categorized[16]. 

BLOCK DIAGRAM

                

  

                            FIG 1 BLOCK DIAGRAM[17]

TYPES OF FRUITS

1.APPLE

a) APPLE SCAB:

This is the most infectious disease for apple.This disease mainly occurs in apple growing areas[17][18]. During cool and wet weather climate it mainly occurs. It does not occur in summer season.Signs of apple scab are visible on leaves, petals,flowers, husk, fruit, young shoots and bud scales of apple tree[17].

 

                                            

Fig.2Apple scab[2]

b) APPLE ROT:

This is the fungal disease caused due to Botryosphaeriaobtusa. The leaves, barks and fruits of the apple tree gets affected by this disease[1][4]. It firstly attacks the leaves outer layer 1 to 3 weeks after petiole fall as small, purple blotch after centre turn brown  and yellowish brown[2][5]. After few weeks the second stage of apple rot occurs. The leaf will drop from the tree when it highly gets affected.

 Apple rot disease occur in three forms: 1) leaf blotch on apple trees 2) fruit rot on apple trees 3) limb canker on apple tree.

                                          

                                       Fig 3 Apple rot[2]

 

c) APPLE BLOTCH:

This mainly occurs in northeast during summer season.This disease majorly occurs by two organisms. Due to economical and commercial quality of fruit this easily occurs[6][18]. The symptoms of the fruit occurs as the greenish blue spot on the contaminated fruit. The disease will appear like colonies. By going day by day the colony becomes larger and larger[2].

                                     

                                       Fig 4 Apple blotch[2]

2.POMEGRANATE:

a) BACTERIAL BLIGHT:

In delhi,this disease was indentified in 1952.This disease is lower economic threat until 1998 but nowadays this disease occurs all over wide mainly pomegranate growing areas[18][2] .The pomegranate areas like Maharastra,Karnataka,Andhra Pradesh.

This disease mainly occurs like black spot surrounded by bacterial lime.The cracking of fruit will occur due to this disease[12].

 

                                           

                                    Fig 5 Bacterial Blight[2]

 

b) ASPERGILLUS ROT:

This disease mainly occurs in rainy season when the flower open up its petals. There will be not any external infection. The fungus will grow inside the fruit[16] .The fruit will be in less weight so this may signs that it may get affected.Mostly, infected fruit show some yellowish to brownish-red discoloration and are slightly off-color such as a pale red[19].

                                        

                                    Fig 6 Aspergillus rot[2]

c) GRAY MOLD:

Gray mold is also called as Botrytis cinetea. At the time of post harvest wash this disease become more active and at the room temperature it spreads to all other fruits[20]. Gray Mold damage flower part of pomegranate and affects the fruit until its ripening.The grayish coating will be formed outside the affected fruit[17].

 

                                          

                                         Fig 7 Gray mold[2]

3.GRAPES:

a) BLACK ROT

Black rot is the most severe and dangerous disease.It is a fungal disease which affects canes, tendrils, leaves and it occurs mainly in hot and moisture areas[3][21].By using some pesticides,fungicides and some methods we can control black rot.

The first defect of black rot is firstly appear on the border of leaves and forms yellow spot at the centre of the leaf[4].Fugus will appear like black dot and ring like structure outside the fruit.Only after the half growth of fruit,the disease occurs[22].

                                       

                                         Fig 8 Black rot[2]

b) POWDERY MILDEW:

It is originated by fungus Uncinulanecator, it is also called as Oidium.This disease mainly occurs in grapes and grape related fruits.This disease mainly occurs at the underneath of the leaves.The powdery mildew is greeny or whitish patches form like structure[22][6].The badly infected leaves will get curled and withering  along with bloch.The old infected leaves will appear as reddish brown[7].The powdery meldew which is premature will have less sugar content.The sugar content in it is less and the size will be like berrys.Sometimes it become useless to use when it gets affected by disease[23].

                                      

                                         

                                   Fig 9 Powdery mildew[2]

c) DOWNY MILDEW:                                                                                                

Downy mildew which mostly affects on grape vine.This occurs in the climatic conditions like summer,bloom and if the temperature goes to

10˚C in the grape growing areas downy mildew occurs[26].Once if the plant gets affected the sign of this disease can see on the leaves after 6 to 7 days[23][27]. Plasmoparaviticola which causes this disease.

The affected part will be in yellow circular spots and surrounded by brownish yellow  halo. Downy mildew name comes because of its downy growth[12][23].

                                           

                                    Fig 10 Downy mildew[2]

ALGORITHM USED:

SEGMENTATION USING BOUNDARY AND SPOT DETECTION ALGORITHM:

The image obtained will be a RGB image and it has to converted to HIS model for segmentation process[24].

 

To find the infected parts two methods will be used one is boundary detection and another one is spot detection.The pixels with 8 connectivity are considered for the boundary detection and boundary detection algorithm is used[12][24].

 

THRESHOLD ALGORITHM: The process of converting gray level images to binary image is thresholding. The pixels below threshold will be zero and pixels above will be one[13][25].

 

K-MEANS CLUSTERING

Based on the results  we obtained this clustering is used to convert objects into classes with K number[6][7].

The object classification is obtained by squaring the distance between them and summing them[8].

 

 The algorithm for K –means Clustering: i).Pick center of K cluster, either randomly or based on some heuristic. ii).Assign each pixel in the image to the cluster that minimizes the distance between the pixel and the cluster center[9][23]. iii).Again compute the cluster centers by averaging all of the pixels in the cluster. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until convergence is attained[1].

                                                                                        

CONCLUSION

This paper gives the survey on fruit diseases detection and classification techniques by using image processing. The paper discusses the methodology, results in each of the research work . Different researchers used algorithms for image segmentation, feature extraction, training and classification of fruit disease. Among different methods, K-means clustering  provides high accuracy and are widely used. All methods in this paper provide efficient results and also save time.

 

 

 

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[1] VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI, "REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING", IEEE Dataport, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.21227/j65m-zn06. Accessed: Jun. 25, 2019.
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url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21227/j65m-zn06},
author = {VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI },
publisher = {IEEE Dataport},
title = {REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING},
year = {2018} }
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T1 - REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING
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VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI. (2018). REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING. IEEE Dataport. http://dx.doi.org/10.21227/j65m-zn06
VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI, 2018. REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.21227/j65m-zn06.
VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI. (2018). "REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING." Web.
1. VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI. REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING [Internet]. IEEE Dataport; 2018. Available from : http://dx.doi.org/10.21227/j65m-zn06
VINOSHA BALASUBRAMANI. "REVIEW ON FRUIT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING." doi: 10.21227/j65m-zn06